Everything a science student should know about coronavirus

Introduction :

An infection with SARS-CoV-2 is called COVID-19 diseases (Coronavirus disease in 2019). Genesis has been tracked to (Possible but not confirmed ) in a food market in Wuhan, China,( or lab-engineered by China) in December 2019, to countries as far-reaching as the United States. Regardless of the global fear in the news, its improbable to contract SARS-COV-2 unless came in contact with an infected area or living thing.

Causes:

Coronaviruses are a family of viruses. Coronaviruses are zoonotic (first develop in animals before developing in humans). Virus transmission from animals to humans due to close contact with an animal that carries the infection. Coronaviruses can be spread from person to person through respiratory droplets (wet stuff that moves through the air when you cough or sneeze). The viral material hangs out in these droplets and can be breathed into the respiratory tract (your windpipe and lungs)leading to infection. Researchers believe that possibly the virus may have been transmitted to humans via bats to another animal — either snakes or pangolins. This transmission likely occurred in the open food market in Wuhan, China, or may have been engineered by a lab in Wuhan.

Symptoms:

Different things are learned every day by doctors. COVID-19 may not initially cause any symptoms as people may carry the virus for 2 days or up to 2 weeks before you notice symptoms.
Some common symptoms
• shortness of breath
• having a dry cough that gets more severe over time
• a low-grade fever that gradually increases in temperature
• fatigue
Less common symptoms include:
• chills
• repeated shaking with chills
• sore throat
• headache
• muscle pain and aches
• loss of taste
• loss of smell

These symptoms may become more severe
• trouble breathing
• blue lips or face
• persistent pain or pressure in the chest
• confusion
• excessive drowsiness

Who is at increased risk?

High risk for contracting SARS-CoV-2 (Covid19)if it came into contact with someone who’s carrying it, specifically if exposed to their saliva or cough or sneeze. Without taking proper preventative measures, you’re also at high risk if you:

  • living with infected (with Covid19) person.
  • are providing home care to infected (with Covid19) person.
  • have an intimate partner who was infected (with Covid19).

People with a health conditions and old people have a higher risk of severe complications if are infected .These health conditions include:

  • lung conditions, like COPD and asthma
  • certain heart conditions
  • immune system issues like HIV.
  • cancer requiring treatment
  • severe obesity
  • other health conditions, if not well-managed, such as diabetes, kidney disease, or liver disease

Pregnant women have a higher risk of other viral infections, but the same isn't confirmed with Covid19.

How are Coronaviruses diagnosed?

COVID-19 can be diagnosed using a blood, saliva, or tissue sample. Though, most tests use a cotton swab to retrieve a sample from your nostrils.

The emergency use of diagnostic kit is authorized for use by people who healthcare professionals have identified as having suspected COVID-19.

If you notice any COVID-19 symptoms, talk to your doctor. Your doctor will advise you about the action you have to take like to stay home, quarantine, to come doctor's office for evaluation, and to visit the hospital in an emergency .

What treatments are available?

There’s currently no specific treatment approved for COVID-19, treatments and vaccines are currently under study. Treatment is based on managing symptoms as the virus has no complete medicine. Other coronaviruses (SARS AND MERS) are also treated by managing symptoms.

Therapies used for these illnesses are :

  • antiviral medications
  • breathing support, like mechanical ventilation
  • steroids to reduce lung swelling
  • blood plasma transfusions

Possible complications from COVID-19 :

The most serious complication of COVID-19 is a type of pneumonia that’s been called 2019 novel corona virus-infected pneumonia (NCIP). Into hospitals in Wuhan, China 138 people were admitted with NCIP, 26 percent of those admitted had severe cases and needed to be treated in the intensive care unit (ICU). Around 4.3 percent of these people died in ICU from this type of pneumonia.  People who were admitted to the ICU were on average older and had more underlying health conditions than people that didn’t attend the ICU.. Till now, NCIP is the only complication linked to the COVID-19. Researchers have seen the subsequent complications in people that have developed COVID-19 like

Methods of prevention:

The best way to prevent the spread of infection is to avoid or limit contact with people who are showing symptoms of COVID-19 or any respiratory infection. The next best thing you can do is practice good hygiene and social physical distancing to prevent bacteria and viruses from spreading.

Prevention tips:

  • Wash your hands frequently for a minimum of 20 seconds at a time with warm water and soap. How long are 20 seconds? About as long because it takes to sing your “ABCs.”
  • when your hands are dirty, don’t touch your face, eyes, nose, or mouth.
  • Don’t leave if you’re feeling sick or have any cold or flu symptoms
  • Stay at 2 meters far away from people.
  • Cover your mouth with a tissue or the within of your elbow whenever you sneeze or cough. Throw away any tissues you employ directly.
  • Clean any objects you touch tons. Use disinfectants on objects like phones, computers, utensils, dishes, and doorknobs.

Should you wear a mask?

  • If you call at a public setting where it’s difficult to follow physical distancing guidelines, recommends that you simply wear a cloth mask that covers your mouth and nose.
  • When worn correctly, and by large percentages of the public, these masks can help to slow the spread of SARS-CoV-2.
  • That’s because they can block the respiratory droplets of people who may be asymptomatic or people who have the virus but have gone undiagnosed. Respiratory droplets get into the air when you exhale, talk, cough, or sneeze.
  • Cloth masks are preferred for the overall public since other sorts of masks should be reserved for healthcare workers.
  • It’s critical to stay the mask clean. Wash it whenever you employ it. Avoid touching the front of it together with your hands. Also, attempt to avoid touching your mouth, nose, and eyes once you remove it. This prevents you from possibly transferring the virus from a mask to your hands and from your hands to your face.
  • Keep in mind that wearing a mask isn’t a replacement for other preventive measures, like frequent hand washing and practicing physical distancing. All of them are important.
  • Certain people shouldn’t wear face masks. They include children under 2 years old, people that have trouble breathing, and other people who are unable to get rid of their masks.

In the next post, I am going to share a few details about the Coronavirus family virus of MERS, SARS, and basic difference.

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